Routes of Transmission
In most cases, the virus is transmitted through oral path, by ingesting contaminated food (uncooked or undercooked garbage of meat). It can also be transmitted by direct contact with infected swine, or infected objects, surroundings (fomites). In gravid sows, the virus can infect the piglets through the placenta. It can also be spread through semen during copulation. rarely , it happens that the virus is spread by aerosol in close confinement or by vectors.
Classical Swine Fever
The virus can be found in blood, mucus, urine, feces, and nasal discharge. Primarily, it is replicated in the tonsils. Secondly, in the endothelial cells, lymphatic organs and bone marrow. Because of this, hemorrhagic lesions occur, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia.
The severity of the disease can be different. It can occur acutely, usually followed by death (2-25 days). It happens in unvaccinated pigs, when they are infected with highly virulent strains of the virus. There are symptoms like: fever, depression, anorexia, diarrhea/constipation, conjunctivitis, neural symptoms (paresis, paralysis); Hyperemia and purpura on the abdomen and ears.
In subacute and chronic cases, the pigs are infected by mildly virulent strains of the virus. In this case, the disease can last for few weeks or months. It can affect only some of the animals, showing clinical symptoms. The others may not show any symptoms, however they will spread the disease. In piglets, the virus causes slower growth. Also, chronic diarrhea, dermatitis, purpura, then again mortality after few weeks/months.
In gravid sows, there can be abortions, early embryonic death, stillborns, piglets born alive and then they grow slowly and die after few weeks.
Hemorrhagic lesions, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, petechiae on the epiglottis and the kidneys, infarctions on the spleen and “Buttons” on the colon.
Testing material and Laboratory tests
Tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, kidneys, distal part of the ileum
Immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, ELISA
Minimize visitors on your farm and do not allow persons who have recently (last 5 days) had contact with animals, especially swine, in other countries to have contact with your pigs. Newly arriving or returning pigs should be isolated for at least 30 days before being introduced to the rest of the herd. Do not feed uncooked or undercooked garbage or meat products to pig.
If by chance your favorite animal is pig, especially if you have a pet pig, check the video article about Pig Tusk & Hoove Trim by Dr. Evan Antin.