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An isotonic solutions are two solutions that have the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane. Because of this, free movement is allowed across the membrane. It doesn’t interfere with the concentration of solutes on each side.

NaCl 0.9%
– shock
– hyponatremia
– resuscitation
– blood transfusion
– metabolic alkalosis
– diabetic ketoacidosis
* Should be used with caution in patients with edema, hypernatremia or heart failure
* May lead to fluid overload

Ringer Lactate
– burns
– hypovolemia
– acute blood loss
– dehydration
– fluid loss in the GI tract
* To be used with caution in renal patients! Contains potassium and can cause hyperkalemia
* Not to be used in patients with liver disease. They cannot metabolize lactate
* Lactate is converted into bicarb by the liver or heart failure
* May lead to fluid overload

Dextrose (D5W)
– hypernatremia
– fluid loss
– dehydration
* When dextrose become metabolized, the solution becomes hypotonic
* Never to be used for resuscitation
* To be used with caution in cardiac and renal patients or heart failure
* May lead to fluid overload